The perpetual electoral campaign: how Brazilian mayors secure reelection through government advertising
KOPP, Luis Felipe
Is a comparatively diminutive budget item – government expenditures on advertising in the news media – imperiling an effective news media and a transparent and competitive electoral process? High government expenditures on advertising open the door to political self-promotion, the cooptation of news media outlets, and may serve as pipelines for political slush funds. Analyzing an original database of 1,446 Brazilian municipalities (127 million people), we begin to gauge the systemic effects of government advertising expenditures, which are non-campaign budget item, on electoral success. On average, we find that mayors who win reelection spend 33% more on government advertising than losers. We also find that in the context of high expenditures, the number of newspapers is positively and significantly correlated to reelection. Our calculations indicate that current Brazilian legislative proposals to cap advertising expenditures at 1% of municipal budgets would, on average, increase the probability of reelection by nearly 80%.
Transparent health: a analysis of compliance to the Access to Information Law in federal public health institutions
MARINHO, Tatiana Cerginer
Purpose- The present work evaluates transparency in 65 federal health agencies by measuring and analyzing the degree to which freedom of information (FOI) regulations are being followed. Design/Methodology- The research used the methodology developed by FGV’s Public Transparency Program. It is divided into three stages: 1) evaluation of active transparency; 2) evaluation of passive transparency; and 3) analysis of the active transparency of non-profit entities that signed agreements with the agencies surveyed. Findings- Results show that implementation of active transparency (information disclosed proactively on government websites) is low, resulting in an average score of 26.27% on a well-known index. Meanwhile, passive transparency (information provided as a response to requests for access to information) fared better, with an average score of 38.3%, but still poorly compared to the average Brazilian score, which is 52%. Research limitations- The analysis is restricted to the public health agencies at the federal level. Practical implications- This study improves our understanding of the motivations and obstacles that organizations face in applying the access to information law. In this sense it can point to weaknesses to better focus strategies to increase levels of implementation. It can also help to provide a comparative perspective among organizations, encouraging further research in order to evaluate sectoral compliance of organizations with the FOI law. Social implications- By identifying obstacle to transparency, this study contributes to movements for greater accountability in order to combat corruption and strengthen good governance. Originality- This is the first study that evaluates compliance with FOI laws exclusively in public health agencies
Legislative transparency has not evolved as quickly as it has within the executive, and the same can be said for municipal transparency in relation to transparency encountered at the federal level of government. The lack of transparency within city council renders it more difficult for citizens to choose the best representatives. At the same time, opacity generates fewer incentives for councilors to improve their representativeness. This study aims to evaluate the degree of transparency within the legislative assemblies of Brazil’s capital cities. To this end, this thesis develops two methodologies based on the 8 principles of open data. One measures compliance with the Brazilian Freedom of Information Act (FOI), and the other evaluation assesses the transparency of legislative processes. I evaluated 39 official websites from the 26 capitals. The results demonstrate an extremely low level of FOI compliance and a low level of legislative transparency. No correlation was found between transparency and municipal economic wealth, size of population, or levels of development. Findings show that poor levels of detail in complying with the Brazilian FOI law. One of the major problems appears to be the lack of any universal standards to orient what elements should be rendered transparent.
Borges, Eduardo Bizzo de Pinho
“Transparência da governança florestal na Amazônia: uma análise de cumprimento da Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI) nos estados” seeks to evaluate the extent of compliance with the Access to Information Law (LAI) in 105 state-level agencies responsible for forest governance in the nine Amazonian states.
As the quality of forest governance is a concept presupposing transparency and as the LAI is one of the most important legal instruments seeking to attribute transparency to the public administration in Brazil, evaluating the extent of its implementation is evaluating forest governance and its capacity to formulate and implement quality policies for forest conservation and use.
Santos, Otávio Albuquerque Ritter dos
This research attempts to analyze the effects of open government data on the administration and practice of the educational process by comparing the contexts of Brazil and England. The findings illustrate two principal dynamics: control and collaboration. In the case of control, or what is called the "data-driven" paradigm, data help advance the cause of political accountability through the disclosure of school performance. In collaboration, or what is referred to as the "data-informed" paradigm, data is intended to support the decision-making process of administrators through dialogical processes with other social actors.
This Master's thesis ultimately became an article published in the journal, Public Administration.
Federal institutions of higher education must comply with the active transparency statutes of Brazil’s new freedom of information law (12.527) by keeping their homepages updated and complete with the required information. However, some federal universities are not prepared to deal with the FOI law and still suffer from management problems accumulated over the years.
This study analyses compliance with active transparency statutes in 53 federal universities, examining the information published on the websites of public organizations, comparing it with the content of FOI laws.
Examining the prevalence of transparency in the sale of insurance in Brazil and around the world, this study considers the costs and benefits of this transparency through surveys and based on extensive contextual and scholarly analyses. The survey included 191 Brazilian insurance brokers, as well as insurance supervisors, organizations representing insurers and insurance brokers from a total of 39 foreign jurisdictions, in addition to the European Commission.